ICHTHYOFAUNAL DIVERSITY OF KALI SINDH RIVER

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STUDIES  ON  ICHTHYOFAUNAL  DIVERSITY  OF  KALI  SINDH  RIVER  NEAR JETPURA  VILLAGE,  JHALAWAR,  RAJASTHAN, INDIA

*Harinder Singh Banyal  and Sanjeev Kumar

Desert Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Jodhpur-342005, Rajasthan, India.

[*Corresponding author: dr.harinderbanyal@gmail.com]

 

Received: 22-10-2019                    Revised: 08-12-2019                      Accepted: 18-12-2019

Fish samples were collected from Kali Sindh River near Jetpura village, Jhalawar during 2018 to evaluate the composition of fish faunal diversity. 18 fish species belonging to cypriniformes order were recorded from the area of study followed by 4 spp. of order siluriformes, 2 species of perciformes and 1 species each of osteoglossiformes and beloniformes order. In all 26 species of fishes were recorded from the river.

Key words: Fish, Kali Sindh, River, Diversity.

INTRODUCTION

Lakes and reservoirs in India constitute the single largest inland fishery resources both in terms of size and production potential. Fisheries in India is a very important economic activity and a flourishing sector with varied water resources and potentials. The country has shown continuous and sustained rises in fish production since, independence. The total fish production during 2017-18 is appraised to be 12.60 million metric tonnes, of which approximately 65% is from inland segment and about 50% of the total production is from culture fisheries and constitutes about 6.3% of the worldwide fish production (Anon., 2019 I).

 Rajasthan state located in the western part of India has an extensive area of 3, 42,239 km2, constituting 11% of the total geographical area of India. The state is gifted with four major River basins viz. Chambal River, Mahi River basin, Luni River basin and Ghaggar River basin. Approximately seventy rivers join these major River systems with large number of tanks, ponds and reservoirs during monsoon season variable in natural recruitment of fish and other aquatic fauna all over the State (Anon., 2019 II).

The Kali Sindh is a vital river of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states. It is a part of the Ganges Basin. The Kali Sindh initiates from Bagli area in Madhya Pradesh and its tributaries are Niwaj, Parwan Ahu, Kuwari and Betwa Rivers. Kali Sindh flows through almost whole area of Jhalawar district of Rajasthan to join the Chambal, Rajasthan’s largest river in Kota district of Rajasthan. Kalisindh Dam is a concrete gravity dam built across Kali Sindh River near Jetpura village which is 16 km from Jhalawar city of Rajasthan.  It is built mainly for providing water for irrigation to adjacent villages, control yearly floods in Kali Sindh River and uplift water for Kali sindh Thermal Power Station. The dam has the maximum number of gates (33) amongst all dams in Rajasthan. Present study was carried out at Kali sindh Dam near Jetpura village (N 24° 28.853′ E 076° 13.524’) of Jhalawar  district of Rajasthan.

 MATERIAL AND METHODS

Fishes were collected using random method by using cast & gillnets mainly. Hand net, scoop net, drag net and baited hooks were also used. The fishes were also examined from fishermen’s catch at landing sites. After catch, fishes were immediately transferred to 5-10% formaldehyde solution. Care was taken that fins remained stretched. In the laboratory, fishes were washed with water to eliminate the mucous and unnecessary stuff and subsequently were preserved in 5-10% formaldehyde solution in the containers after identification and labeling. Morphological characters of the fishes viz. color, spots, bands etc. were also recorded in the field. The Fishes were identified following Talwar and Jhingran (1991), Jayaram (1999) and www.fishbase.org version (02/2018). Nature of stream flow was decided according to the norms given by Gordon et al. (1992) whereas, nature of the stream bottom was accounted according to the criteria given by Armontrout (1999).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Exhaustive work pertaining to fish faunal diversity of  Rajasthan is done  mainly by Hora and Mathur  (1952), Datta et al. (1970), Johal et al. (1993) and Mohan & Ramkishor (2013) whereas Dubey & Mehra (1962), Sharma and Johal (1982), Sharma and Johal (1984), Gupta & Kulshreshta (1985), Johal and Sharma (1986), Juyal & Chaudhary (2003), Srivastava, (2007), Sharma & Choudhury (2007) & Banyal & Kumar (2013, 2015I,II,III,IV, 2016, 2017I&II, 2018 & 2019) have done noticeable work in enhancing our knowledge regarding fish fauna of southern and south eastern  part of  the state.

 Dubey & Mehra (1962) described 71 species whereas, Banyal and Kumar (2015I) have recorded 54 species of fish from Rajasthan portion of River Chambal. Banyal and Kumar (2017II & 2019) have also recorded 21 species of fish from “Bisalpur Reservoir” part of Banas River and 34 species of fish from Mahi River in Rajasthan state.

Gupta & Kulshreshta (1985) have documented 57 species of fish from Jhalawar district whereas Banyal and Kumar (2015 IV) have reported 9 spp. of fish from Kalisindh River at Gagron area of Jhalawar district of Rajasthan but, comprehensive information on fish fauna from Kali Sindh River is very meager and inconsistent. Keeping in mind importance of Kali Sindh River from commercial fisheries point of view the river was surveyed in the year 2018-2019 at Kali Sindh Dam near Jetpura village of Jhalawar district of Rajasthan to ascertain the details of fish faunal diversity in order to prepare data base for better management of the river for all the stakeholders.

Kali Sindh is an intermittent and spring fed river. At the point of study, the river was having extensive amount of water due to construction of dam. Whereas, downstream to dam the river was having isolated pools only. The bottom of the river consisted of rocks, boulders, cobbles, gravels and sand. Run & pools were the main habitats observed in the river.

During present study 26 species of fishes belonging to 5 orders and 6 families were identified from the said river.

List of the fishes with classification is as follows:

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Salmophasia Swainson

  1. Salmophasia bacaila (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Rasbora Bleeker

  1. Rasbora daniconius (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Osteobrama Heckel

  1. Osteobrama cotio (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Puntius Hamilton

  1. Puntius sophore (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Pethia   Pethiyagoda et al.,

  1. Pethia ticto (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Systomus McClelland

  1. Systomus sarana (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Catla Valenciennes

  1. Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Cirrhinus Cuvier

  1. Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822)
  2. Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton, 1822)

 Genus: Labeo Cuvier

  1. Labeo boggut (Sykes, 1839)
  2. Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822)
  3. Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822)
  4. Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Garra Hamilton

  1. Garra gotyla (Gray, 1830)
  2. Garramullya (Sykes, 1839)

Genus: Devario Heckel

  1. Devario devario (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Amblypharyngodon Bleeker

  1. Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Tor Gray

  1. Tor tor (Hamilton, 1822)

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Bagridae

Genus: Sperata Holly

  1. Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839)

Genus: Mystus Scopoli

  1. Mystus cavasius (Hamilton, 1822)

Genus: Wallago Bleeker

  1. Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

   Family: Sisoridae

   Genus: Gagata Bleeker

  1. Gagata cenia (Hamilton, 1822)

Order: Osteoglossiformes

Family: Notopteridae

Genus: Notopterus Lacepede

  1. Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769)

Order: Beloniformes

Family: Belonidae

Genus: Xenentodon Regan

  1. Xenentodon cancila (Hamilton, 1822)

Order: Perciformes

Family: Ambassidae

Genus: Chanda Hamilton

  1. Chanda nama Hamilton, 1822

Genus: Parambassis Bleeker

  1. Parambassisranga (Hamilton, 1822)

18 cyprinid species were recorded from the area of study followed by 4 spp. of catfishes, 2 spp. under perciformes, 1 sp. of osteoglossiformes & 1sp. under beloniformes order. As per IUCN (2018) status 24 spp. are under least concern category, 1 in near to threatened category [Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider, 1801))] & 1 in data deficient category i. e. Tor tor (Hamilton, 1822).

Knowledge of fish faunal diversity of a water body is an important aspect for its sustainable as well as economical management. Moreover, knowledge of fishery resources, their availability and distribution in aquatic water resources is essential for their proper utilization [Mohan, et al. (2013) and Banyal & Kumar (2015I, II, III, IV, 2016, 2017I&II, 2018 & 2019)]. Present account of 26 spp. of fishes from Kali Sindh River shows that the river has good potential from fish faunal perspective. It is further recommended that over fishing of important game fishes such as Tor tor (Hamilton, 1822) should be restricted for fisherman. Moreover, fishing should be banned during breeding season and critical water level should also be maintained particularly in the deep-water pools because these hot spots play a vital role in spawn dispersal as proved by Waltham et al. (2014). In this context necessary steps should be taken to minimize anthropogenic activities in and around the river. Regular monitoring of the physico-chemical and biological parameters of the river water should also be done to prevent any adverse impact on river ecology. Agencies working in this region should also spread conservation information, education and practices to fishermen and other stakeholders about the danger of annihilation of the species and the need for its conservation. This will go a long way towards protecting and preserving the fish species in this important river of Rajasthan state.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Authors are thankful to Dr. Kailash Chandra, Director, Z.S.I., Kolkata for providing necessary facilities to undertake present work.

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