EFFECT OF KARANJ OIL ON THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF RHIZOPERTHA DOMINICA (F). COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE
Rajendra Mistry, Neha Kumari* and S.S. Singh**
Dept. Of Zoology, St. Columbus College, Hazaribagh.
** Dept. Of Zoology, R.K.D. College, Patna
Received: 21-05-2019 Accepted: 27-01-2020
The present investigation is concerned with the population dynamics of the lesser grain borer R. dominica (F) on the effect of non – edible oil such as Karanj oil. The present study also aims to investigate and classify the favourble environmental conditions for multiplication of R. dominica (F) infesting stored maize seeds. The beetle although attack many legume seeds but in the present investigation it has been specifically grown and studied on maize. It was found that the Karanj oil has insecticidal properties which can reduce the population growth of R. dominica (F) in storage. Among the different doses of Karanj oil used in the experiment. We found that 1ml / 50g of maize seed was considered most effective dose in all cases. This is followed by 0.75ml, 0.5ml and 0.25ml / 50g of maize seed.
Key Words: Rhizopertha dominica (F), maize seed, Karanj oil, Containers, muslin cloth.
Zea mays L (maize) is one of the three major cereals (paddy, wheat and maize) crops cultivated as grain cum fodder worldwide and is also utilized in starch, oil, food and feed industries. This grain is attacked by several insect pests of which the lesser grain borer (R. dominica F) is primary pest of Z. mays in storage (Mark et al 2010). Young insects are tend to have a greater flight activity than older insects (Aslam et. al 1994).
- dominica (F) may cause damage to the stored grain products which may range from 5 – 10% in the temperatwhereas 20 – 30% in the tropical zones (Talukder 2006, Rajendran and Sriranjini, 2008) while Mohammad (2000) reported upto 10 – 15% weight loss in maize during storage. Rajshekhar et al (2010) reported about 20 – 25% of the total food grain production to be damaged by various stored grain pest in India.
Today’s usual practices for a control of store grain insect pests of maize in the world include use of synthetic insecticides and phosphine gas during storage (Anwar et al 2003). Resistance to phosphine is so high in Australia, India that it would cause control failure (Mau et al. 2012, Ahmad et al. 2013, Charles and Khan 2016). Although the chemical insecticides are effective but their repeated use has led to several problems (Lu and Wu 2010) and increasing costs of their application.
In view of the above facts the present investigations are carried out to reduce the losses in maize by R. dominica (F) through the Karanj oil.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present investigation on the effectiveness of Karanj oil on the population dynamics of R. dominica (F) in stored maize seed were carried out in the P.G. Dept. Of Zoology, College of Commerce, Arts and Science, Patna during 2017 – 2018. The following materials are used and methods employed during investigation –
- Zea maize (Maize)
- R. Dominica (F) (Lesser grain borer)
- Karanj oil (Pongamiaglabra)
- i) Maize seed were washed and dried under sunlight.
- ii) Insects of dominica (F) were collected from maize traders and farmers.
- iii) Ten pairs of healthy insects were first introduced in the rearing pots and were allowed to lay eggs. Separate stock culture was maintained at 28 ± 20C and 70 ± 5% R.H. The opening of the pots were covered with muslin cloth. Twenty five pairs of test insects were introduced in the rearing pots to allowed lay eggs. One pair of freshly emerged adults were isolated from the stock culture and was introduced in separate pots containing maize seeds. The test insect and maize seeds were regularly changed to keep a healthy culture.
Constant quantity 50g of maize grain were taken and treated with four doses of Karanj oil (procured from the market) viz. 0.25ml, 0.5ml, 0.75ml and 1.0ml. These four doses were used each in four replicates. One set of for experiment was conducted at room temp. 300C ± 20C and 70 ± 5 R.H. Observations were recorded at 30 days interval.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Karanja oil (Ko) was taken in the same dose i.e. 0.25ml, 0.50ml and 1.0ml / 100g maize seed. One set of experiment was kept untreated and maintained as control.
The effect of Ko as a protectant against R. dominica (F) was made. The average percentage damage are presented in different Anova tables (1, 2&3) in different season.
It was observed that the number of beetles increased during the initial stages and during rainy season but low in winter season. Population was found lowest at 1ml dose / 100g maize seed.
The percentage of damaged seeds in each replication of Ko was calculated. The average percentage damage observed at different intervals in different season is given in Anova tables (1, 2&3).
Statistical analysis of the data had shown significant difference between the controls and all other treatments. From the results obtained, it may be conducted that maize seeds could be effectively protected from the damage of the insect by mixing the seeds at the ratio of 0.25ml to 1.0ml / 100g of seeds. The work of S U Helen (1978) on the toxic properties of black pepper against rice weevil, pulse beetle and cigarette beetle supports the present investigation. Weight loss indicates the quantitative loss in maize seeds due to insect feeding. The data presented in different tables shows a direct relationship between insect population and weight (Ready & Ready 1987).
The untreated control recorded highest moisture gain and insect population. The impact of the grains viability none of the treatment was affects the germination adversity. This finding holds with the results of Kumari and Singh (2002).
The Karanja seed oil has been reported to possess roachicidal property. The toxicity was attributed mainly to Karanjiin and furanoflavoncids present in the oil (Singh &Kataria 1985).
The spray of Ko of different concentrations lowering the beetles damage but its toxicity persisted for a short period and consequently beetles damage increased. The findings support with those of Krishnaiah and Mohan (1983) and Krishniah and Srinivason (1984).
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