DEVELOPMENT OF SOMATIC EMBRYO FROM SINGLE CELL IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.): HISTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS
Tiwari V. K.* and Cocking E. C.
Plant Genetic Manipulation Group, Department of Life Science, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham,
NG 7 2 RD, England
[Corresponding author E-mail*: email@example.com]
Received: 29-09-2015 Accepted: 01-11-2015
Embryogenic callus was successfully initiated by culturing immature embryos of barley cv. Dissa on the agarose-solidified CC2 medium containing 2 mg l-1 2, 4-D, 50 ml l-1 coconut water and 0.2 g l-1 casein hydrolysate. The development of somatic embryos occurred from single cells on this medium from the nodular, compact, yellow callus that was considered as embryogenic callus because it has the ability to differentiate; whereas, soft, non-embryogenic callus (watery callus) did not differentiate into shoots and roots. Many somatic embryos underwent internal cell division to from globular-like structures (meristemoids). These meristemoids in turn produced secondary embryoids or enlarged considerably to produce shoot buds and / or leafy structures. Such leafy structures and shoots possessed vascular connections to the ground substance of the callus suggesting organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis occurred side-by-side. Hence, somatic embryogenesis mainly happens in the scutellar epidermis followed by the organogenesis.
Keywords: Embryogenic callus, barley, somatic embryogenesis, scutellar epidermis, organogenesis