Biochemical Analysis of Kund Water of Rajgrih



Punit Kr., Arvind. Kr. Singh, Rampravesh Pd.,

Rohit Kr. Singh1, Arun Kr. Singh and Shivadhar Sharma*

Dept. of Chemistry, Magadh University, Bodhgaya – 824234

1 P. G. Dept. of Environmental Science, M. U., Bodh-Gaya.

* Institute of Biochemistry, M. U., Bodh-Gaya


Received: 04-07-2019                                                                                 Accepted: 25-12-2019

There are fourteen kunds in Rajgrih. Several kunds have hot water among which the Brahm Kund has hotest water with temperature nearly 45°C. The water in kund comes from stream that is understood to initiate from the caps in the hills surrounding the place. The water of all the fourteen kunds were collected and the samples were analyzed for various pollution parameters like pH, T. D. S. (Total Dissolved Solid), alkalinity, hardness, chloride, fluoride, B. O. D (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), C. O. D. (Chemical Oxygen Demand), phosphate and coliform. The study shows that spring water is safe for all the purposes of human being.

Key words:    Hot Spring Water, Coliform, Rajgrih.


Water pollution is major cause of global concern as it leeds to the onset of numerous fatal diseases due to deleterious effects of pollutant on human health (Gupta et al., 2009, Jindal 2010, Shahini et al., 2011). Water quality is important to our lives because it is essential to support physiological activity cause any biological cell (Massad et al., 2002, Agrwal et al., 2010, Upadhaya et al., 2010). The water scarcity is definitely an issue we are dealing with today, it has far recalling complication in future. The world is expressing the surging population and so is our county all so. The increasing population is intensifying pressure on our limited water supply not only are growing population a problem, but global water supplying is also shrinking specially in our country ground water aquifers are being pumped out at a rate greater than it can naturally be replenished. These over all scarcity issue are triggering scripted as more specific problem in many area of life, especially health care and the environment. So quality of surface water like spring water, pond, river and lake water is required to be maintained.

Chemical contamination of water always draws more attention because the effect of chemical contamination on human health is dramatic (Raw et al., 2013, Singh et al., 2013, Sohari et al., 2014, Khanan et al., 2014). The most serious water quality issue measured by health impact, is microbiological contamination access to clean water is fundamental human health. The importance of water to human health and well being is in capsulated in the human right water, reaffirmed by the united nation in (2010) which entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable and physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses. A suffocated health impact modal predicts that drinking water with fecal contamination at fecal coliform per 100 milliliter of water carries seven and half time more risk than drinking water contaminated with arsenic at 50 micro gram per litre (Godfrey et al., 2011, Bain et al., 2012, Gleesion 1997). An estimated seventeen present of child deaths are aqubuted to diarrehoea. Which is cause by facial contamination of food water (Lw et al., 2012, Esrey et al., 1985, Fewtrell, 2005, Clasen et al., 2006, Ligon, 2012). Geochemical studies of ground water as well as surface water are essential to characterize the variation in water quality as well as to assess its suitability for various purposes. During the past decade carious geochemical method have been developed and successfully used to assess the quality of ground water as well as surface water (Park et al., 2005, Naik et al., 2009 and Xiao et al., 2012). Recently (Shethy et al., 2016) have been reported hydro geochemical characterization of ground water in southern Gangatic plain. Though the study area covered is Rajgrih Nalanda area in Bihar but could not study the famous Kunds located in proper Rajgrih. The present paper reports the quality of Kunds water located in proper Rajgrih.

Study Area:   The study areas covers the Kunds located in Rajgrih (Popularly known as Rajgir) which is a city notified area in Nalanda district. In the Indian state of Bihar. The city of Rajgrih was the first capital of Magadh State that would eventually evolved into the Mouryan Empire. Its data of origin is Unknown, although Ceramics dating to about one thousand BC have been found in the city. Thus place is also notable in Buddhism & Jainism as one of the favorite places for Gautam Buddha and Mahivir and the well-known “Atanaliya” conference was held at Vultur’s pick mountain of the place. The place is located on NH 82 and its green valley is surrounded by rocky hills called Rajgrih hills. It is an international place and has come up as one of the most important pilgrims for Buddist. It is famous not only as a place of worship but it is well known as heat and winter resort with its hot water Kunds. These Kunds are said to contain some medicinal properties which help in the cure of many skin and stomach disease. The added attraction of Rajgrih is the ropeway which take up hills to shanti stupa, monasteries built by the Japanese devotees. On the top of Ratnagiri hills. The beauty of the place along with religious belief invite tourist from the country and abroad throughout a year. The geology of the place consist of ultra-basics rocks with asbestos, shop stones vinyl fluoride, magnesite. Its longitude is 85°28″ E and Latitude is 25°08″ N. The study area experiences tropical to subtropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 1205 mm, mainly from south-west monsoon. There are 14 Kunds located in Rajgrih city viz Brahma Kund, Surya Kunds, Kashi dhara Kund, Vyas Kund, Sita Kund, Chandra Kund, Ganga-Yamuna Kund, Ganesh Kund, Gauri Kund, Ram-Laxman Kund and Ahilya Kund. Saraswati Kund is the only cold water Kund while other kunds are hot water kunds. The hottest water kunds is the Brahm kund with water temperature of about 45°C, All the kunds are used by local people and pilgrims for bathing drinking and cooking purposes as it is believed their water helps cure several diseases. The source of water for most of the kunds is Saptarni Caves up in the hills.


Water samples we have collected from all the 14 kunds of Rajgrih by grab sampling method. The pH of the samples was determine at the time of the sampling on the spot by digital pH meter there after the samples were brought to lab for analysis after preserving them by adding a little H2SO4. The parameters like pH, TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride, Fluoride, BOD, COD, Phosphate and Coliform. Where determined using the standard method of analysis (APHA, AWWA, WBPCF 1992). Coliform determination was done by Enumeration of viable cell according to Robert et al., (1995). A serial decimal dilution was prepared using maximum Recovery Diluents. The water samples where diluted (10–1 – 10–4) and pipetted out on R2–A using spread plate method and incubated at 20–22°C for three days. Gram steaming where use to identify bacteria present on R2–A ager. 100 ml of samples were filtered through 0.45 mm pore size cellos nitrate membrane filter and the filter were subsequently transferred into Endo Agar and it was inculpated as 35°C for 22–24 hour. A confirmatory test of the coliform was done by Inoculatory culture into two brilliant green 2% Bile broth test tubes, each having a Durham Test tube and test tube counting 1% trypton water. One of the two test-tube was incubated at 34°C for 45 hour and other with tripton water was incubated at 44°C for 24 hour now 0.2 ml Kovac’s reagent was added to tripton water to detected indole formation (A red colour layer on surface). Gas released in durham test tube indicated the presence of coliform. Alkalinity and calcium hardness were determined by titrimetric method while fluoride was determined by SPANDS method.


The values of different pollution parameter of all the 14 kunds have been presented in Table 1. The pH of water use for domestic purposes is very–very important as it affects test, corosivity, coagulation, and efficiency of chlorination the pH of water samples of different kund of Rajgrih varies from 6.60 to 7.60 with average 6.92. Most of the kunds have exhibit pH in acidic range that is below 7. Only three kunds have pH greater than seven with maximum 7.6 for Sarswati kund, Ram Laxman Kund and Ahilaya kund have almost the same pH value, the graph of pH for water sample of different kund may be given in figs.

The pH value of various ponds of Rajgrih runs from 6.60 to 7.60 most of the kunds water have pH in acidic range. The variation in pH of different kund is very small as the skating values is only  it is also obvious from the graph which produces almost state line parallel to the kund axis. The slight deviation in pH from 7 may be attributed to the dissolution of cations of week base which after undergoing hydrolysis in water produces H+.

However the value of pH for all the kunds springs each within the desirable limit of BIS Indian standards that is 6.5 – 8.5. The Total dissolve solid of kunds water has been found in the range of 100 to 129 ppm. The graph shows three maxima in decreasing order. The maximum value of TDS is found in Saraswati Kund (Sl. No. 6) with 129 PPM followed by Ganesh Kund (Sl. No. 11) with 120 ppm and the smallest maxima is found in Laxman Kund (Sl. No. 13) with value 118 ppm. The standard deviation is found 6.7956 ppm. The maximum value of TDS may be due to free in flow of rain water from the unsemented surface surrounding the Kund, which carries a large conc. of dissolved solid with it. The water of all the kund springs is safe with respect of TDS, as values are much below the desirable limit of 500 ppm.

The alkalinity of Kund springs water samples has been found between 310 to 110 ppm. The graph of alkalinity is a zig-zag type with maxima in Markanday Kund spring (Sl. No. 4) with 310 ppm followed by Vyas Kund (Sl. No. 7) and Ram-Laxman Kund (Sl. No. 13) with 298 ppm. The minimum value of alkalinity is found with Bramh Kund spring water. The value of alkalinity of all the kund spring water except Markanday Kund, Vyas Kund, Ram-Laxman Kund, Surya Kund, Chandra Kund and Sarswati Kund is either equal to or less than the desirable limit 200 ppm. The permissible limit of alkalinity is 600 ppm and hence all the Kund springs water is safe for use for different purposes.

Hardness of Kund water runs from 5.34 to 2.33 ppm. The hardness of Kund springs water is much less than alkalinity which indicate the presence of salt of sodium and potassium in addition to calcium and magnesium. Again the graph is zig-zag type having two humph as it has two maximum one at Ram-Laxman Kund (Sl. No. 13) and other at Saraswati Kund (Sl. No. 6). The values of hardness of kund spring water is much less the desirable limit 300 ppm and permissible limit 600 ppm. As the hardness value is much less than alkalinity value, it is only carbonate hardness in these Kund springs water. Again the skating value of hardness in these kund is very small that is ±9299.

With respect to chloride all the kunds water have almost the same value as the graph is almost straight line with slight deviation at Saraswati kund (Sl. No. 6) and Gauri Kund (Sl. No. 2). The values runs from 9.05 to 10.45 ppm, which is less than the desirable limit 250 ppm and permissible limit 1000 ppm. Similar is the case of variation with fluoride which runs from 0.89 to 1.11 ppm. The skating value is very-very small that is ±0.08477, which is also clear from its strength like curve parallel to the base line. The value of fluoride is also below the permissible limit is 1.5 ppm.

All the kund spring water have very small value of BOD (0.52 to 0.86 ppm) and COD values (1.02 to 1.63 ppm) and thus they have very least amount of dissolve organic and inorganic pollutant.

The value of phosphate is found between 0.03 to 0.08 ppm which is again very small and all the ponds water are almost similar with respect to phosphate the graph is almost state line parallel to base line.

The Coliform value runs from 03 to 09 MPN/100 ml with average value 5.92. The graph is zig-zag with maximum at Ram-Laxman Kund (Sl. No. 13) with value 9 MPN/100 ml. The value of coliform are also much less than the desirable limit and hence microbial quality of all the Kund spring water is fine.


The study shows that all the Kund spring water quality is good but deteriorating with slow pace but the high pressure of pilgrims and open excess to all may be dangerous for causing alarming pollution to the sacred, pious and religious kund spring water Rajgirih.


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